Zequanox® Controls Invasive Zebra Mussels and Quagga Mussels without the Use of Harmful Chemicals


Zequanox invasive mussel control

Since the 1980s, the question of how to get rid of zebra mussels and quagga mussels in a way that is safe for other aquatic life has been an important topic in our water systems. Zequanox molluscicide is the industry’s only selective and environmentally compatible control of invasive zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.) at all life stages — from veliger (larva) to adult. The product delivers efficacy comparable to chemical solutions, but does not endanger employees, damage equipment, or result in harmful impacts to the environment or other aquatic organisms1 when used as directed.

New Webinar on how to control invasive mussel biofouling, click to listen

Zequanox gallon bucket

Applications


Zequanox molluscicide is ideal for use in both enclosed (in-pipe or contained) and open water systems.

Enclosed and Semi-enclosed (In-pipe or Contained) Water Systems


Zequanox is safe and effective zebra mussel and quagga mussel control in:

  • Hydropower facilities
  • Power generation facilities
  • Drinking water and water treatment facilities
  • Golf courses
  • Irrigation systems
  • Industrial process facilities
  • Pulp and paper facilities
  • Water transport systems
  • Other enclosed and semi-enclosed systems (see Zequanox CS product label)

Zequanox CS product information:

  • Noncorrosive to equipment or infrastructure
  • Does not disrupt normal facility operations
  • Short application times
  • Fewer permitting and reporting requirements
  • Does not require deactivation or detoxification before effluent discharge
  • No significant effect on water quality or non-target organisms
  • Minimal PPE required for application

Open Water Systems


Zequanox for recreational and environmental rehabilitation in:

  • Lakes, reservoirs, ponds
  • Rivers and streams
  • Marinas
  • Docks, piers, swimming platforms, submerged infrastructure, buoys
  • Watercrafts
  • Ballast water
  • Shorelines and beaches
  • Other open water systems (see Zequanox product label)

As zebra or quagga mussels colonize open water bodies, they disrupt the natural ecosystem by impacting the filtering behavior of native freshwater mussels, causing the proliferation of toxic blue-green algae, decreasing game fish populations, and causing risk or injury to swimmers from sharp shells. In addition, these invasive species block water intakes, damage boats and other recreational equipment, and decrease lakefront property value.

Zequanox for open water systems:

  • Highly effective rapid response tool to prevent against large-scale zebra or quagga mussel infestations
  • Highly selective with no significant effect on water quality or non-target organisms
  • USDA certified as BioPreferred and Biobased – biodegradable, not persisting in the environment
  • Minimal regulatory restrictions when compared to chemical alternatives
  • Non-corrosive – no risk to boats or recreational equipment
  • Zero-hour re-entry interval (REI), so water can be used continuously for recreational purposes

How your water systems benefit from Zequanox


Zebra and quagga mussels readily consume Zequanox molluscicide, which is composed of dead cells of a naturally occurring microbe, as part of their normal diet. This allows for shorter application times since the mussels do not detect a foreign substance in the treated water.

  • Extensive toxicology studies demonstrate the product is highly selective toward zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena species) and is safe for many aquatic species, including fish, native freshwater unionids, plants, algae, crustaceans, insects, and waterfowl
  • Once ingested, Zequanox molluscicide deteriorates the digestive lining of zebra and quagga mussels, resulting in mortalities over a period of several days to several weeks
  • Product controls mussels during all life stages
Sustainable Ag 1 | MBI

Zequanox molluscicide has significant advantages over other chemical and non-chemical treatment options.

  • Product can be applied using standard mixing and injection equipment and PPE
  • Unlike mechanical solutions, there is no need for costly capital investments or complicated installation and maintenance
  • Zequanox treatments are non-corrosive, non-volatile and do not require detoxification or deactivation before water discharge
  • As a mixed slurry water treatment product, the product reaches even the smallest crevices where mussels may colonize
Sustainable Ag 2 | MBI
  • Zequanox molluscicide treatments are customizable, designed specifically for your water system and based on the degree of mussel infestation and the desired level of control.
  • EPA approved, exempt from a tolerance requirement, and classified as a reduced-risk aquatic pesticide
  • Treatments can be complete in 2-8 hours, and can occur during the workday without disrupting normal operations
Sustainable Ag 3 | MBI

Videos


Zequanox's active ingredient possesses true molluscicidal activity against zebra and quagga mussels for control in infested water systems.


Zequanox Efficacy


Zequanox has proven effective in controlling invasive mussels.


Testimonials


Hear how Zequanox helped control mussels for these customers.

“Thank you . . . for helping us with the initial application. I think [my colleague] and I both benefited a lot from your experience and it will definitely make our next application easier. I went over to [my colleague’s golf course] to watch [him] do his first application and it seemed to go really well.”
~ Eric H., Superintendent

“…the preliminary results look very promising… I was impressed by the commitment that he (Seth) and his team showed while helping us when we were in such dire need.”
~ Stewart T. Bennett, Golf Course Superintendent

Where to Find Zequanox Molluscicide


Wondering how to get rid of zebra mussels and quagga mussels in your water systems? Fill out the form below or to connect with a Marrone rep!


FAQs

What is Zequanox molluscicide?
Zequanox molluscicide is a naturally derived, aquatic biopesticide shown to be effective in controlling invasive zebra and quagga mussels.

What is the active ingredient of Zequanox molluscicide?
Zequanox molluscicide is made from a naturally occurring strain of the bacteria Psuedomonas fluorescens (Pf) (CL145A). Pf is one of the most common soil bacteria in the world and is known to protect the roots of plants from disease.

Is Pseudomonas fluorescens used in other products?
In recent years, Pseudomonas fluorescens species have been used in many applications, including pharmaceutical production, snow making, frost protection for strawberries, and disease protection for apples.

How does Zequanox molluscicide work?
Zebra and quagga mussels readily ingest Zequanox molluscicide as a non-threatening food source. Once ingested, the product deteriorates the lining of the mussels’ digestive systems, causing mortality.

Where does Pseudomonas fluorescens come from?
In general, Pseudomonas fluorescens is an abundant and natural component of the microbial flora of soil, water and plants.

Is Zequanox molluscicide made from a genetically modified organism (GMO)?
No, the specific microbial strain that Zequanox molluscicide is made from is naturally occurring and was discovered in river soil in the Northeastern United States.

Can mussels build up resistance to Zequanox molluscicide?
Because of the product’s complex mode of action, development of pesticide resistance by zebra and quagga mussels is of minimal concern.

How is the Zequanox molluscicide applied?
Zequanox molluscicide arrives as a wettable powder, is mixed with water on-site, and is injected into the water system using standard chemical application equipment.

When is the best time to conduct a Zequanox treatment?
Zequanox molluscicide is most efficacious during periods of high mussel metabolic activity, which occurs during warmer water temperatures (above 60˚F), but there is no restriction to the time of the year when the treatments can be conducted.

Should applicators wear personal protective equipment? If so, what?
Personal protective equipment (PPE) should be worn when working with any type of pesticide. PPE requirements for Zequanox applications are minimal (i.e., gloves and long sleeves). Refer to the product label found for application instructions.

How much does a Zequanox treatment cost?
Zequanox treatments are cost-competitive with zebra and quagga mussel control products. Treatment programs are customizable depending on the desired level of control. Connect with a sales rep for pricing information or for a free quote.

Is Zequanox molluscicide EPA approved?
Zequanox molluscicide has been registered by the United States EPA for use in enclosed and semi-enclosed systems since 2012 and for use in open water systems for environmental rehabilitation and restoration since 2014. It holds EPA state registrations in 37 states where zebra and/or quagga mussels are present or where there is a threat for future infestation.

Is Zequanox molluscicide approved for food uses?
Yes, water treated with Zequanox molluscicide may be used to irrigate crops, for fishing, or any other uses that may result in food, feed, or drinking water contact. Zequanox molluscicide is food tolerance exempt (no maximum residue limit).

Is Zequanox molluscicide safe for drinking water?
The active ingredient of Zequanox molluscicide, Pseudomonas fluorescens, is already present naturally in soil, in water, and on plants, making it a natural part of the human diet. It has negligible effects on drinking water and can be used as a method of mussel control at water treatment facilities.

Is Zequanox molluscicide approved for use on food-grade and food-contact materials and equipment?
Yes, Zequanox molluscicide is been determined to be exempt from requirement of a food tolerance under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act. The EPA and FDA have reviewed Zequanox uses in the manufacture of food-grade and food-contact materials and equipment and have concurred that the existing tolerance exemption for Zequanox molluscicide covers food-grade and food-contact material uses.

Is Zequanox molluscicide harmful to humans?
No, specific to Zequanox molluscicide, the Pseudomonas fluorescens species used has been tested extensively to determine its safety for human health and the environment. These studies provide confirmation that the product is not a human pathogen and is not infectious to humans.
Pseudomonas fluorescens (the active ingredient in Zequanox molluscicide) has been designated as “Biosafety Level 1” by the American Type Culture Collection and the American Biological Safety Association, defining Pseudomonas fluorescens as “having no known potential to cause disease in humans or animals.” US and international health and safety regulators consider Pseudomonas fluorescens species to be of the lowest possible risk to human health and the environment.

Is it harmful or dangerous to fish from, or swim in, a lake/pond that has been treated with Zequanox molluscicide?
No, waters treated with Zequanox molluscicide may be used continuously for recreation purposes, including body-contact activities such as swimming. There is no (zero hours) re-entry interval (REI).
In addition, waters treated with Zequanox molluscicide may be used continuously for fishing and fish caught in these waters may be consumed. Zequanox molluscicide is approved for food uses and is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in and on all food commodities. Additionally, the EPA rule establishing the exemption for a requirement of a tolerance for the active ingredient in Zequanox molluscicide states: “Pseudomonas fluorescens is already present naturally in soil, in water and on plants, thereby making it part of the normal human diet.”

Will Zequanox molluscicide harm water quality?
No, because Zequanox molluscicide is composed of dead bacterial cells, it degrades very quickly in the environment with no lasting effect on water quality.

Will Zequanox molluscicide harm native freshwater mussels?
No, Zequanox molluscicide is highly selective and only affects invasive zebra and quagga mussels.

Will Zequanox molluscicide harm other aquatic organisms?
No, when used as directed. Zequanox molluscicide has proven to be safe for non-target aquatic species. Extensive toxicology studies have been conducted with Zequanox molluscicide. The findings demonstrate that at application rates that produced high zebra and quagga mussel mortality, no bacteria-induced mortality was recorded among any of the nontargets, including fish, insects, crustaceans, plants, algae, birds, and mammals.

Pseudomonas fluorescens (the active ingredient in Zequanox molluscicide) has been designated as “Biosafety Level 1” by the American Type Culture Collection and the American Biological Safety Association, defining Pseudomonas fluorescens as “having no known potential to cause disease in humans or animals.” US and international health and safety regulators consider Pseudomonas fluorescens species to be of the lowest possible risk to human health and the environment.

As with all pesticides and biopesticides, always read and follow directions on the label.

Since Zequanox molluscicide is derived from a bacteria, can the bacteria grow or mutate in treated waters?
No, Zequanox molluscicide is composed of only dead (i.e., non-viable) Pseudomonas fluorescens cells. Therefore, there is no possibility for the bacteria cells in Zequanox molluscicide to reproduce and/or mutate.

Will Zequanox applications harm my boat or recreational equipment?
No, Zequanox molluscicide is a non-corrosive material and will not have any negative effects on boats or other equipment.

1Extensive toxicology studies have been conducted with Zequanox molluscicide. At application rates that produced high zebra and quagga mussel mortality no bacteria-induced mortality was recorded among any of the non-target organisms, including fish, ciliates, daphnids, and bivalves.