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Hydroelectric, fossil, and nuclear power plants that rely on freshwater, are particularly vulnerable to biofouling caused by invasive zebra and quagga mussels. Infestations by these mussel species have grown considerably since being unintentionally introduced into the U.S. Great Lakes in the 1980s. Rapid proliferation occurs as these mussels attach to hard surfaces, structures, and even one another to form dense colonies which can clog pipes, filters, and screens, in addition to damaging mechanical equipment. Plants incur increased maintenance costs, unexpected outages, and reductions in power generation. In the 10-year period from 2000-2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) estimated the economic impact associated with these invasive species at $5 billion.